The federal tax reform law that passed in December 2017 included a new incentive, the qualified opportunity zone (QOZ) regime. The purpose of this tax incentive is to unlock and redirect trillions (yes, trillions) of capital gains into investments into new businesses, and substantial improvements to existing businesses, so long as those businesses are located in a QOZ (generally, designated low income census tracts from the 2010 census). The tax world has been abuzz about this enormous opportunity since the IRS issued taxpayer-friendly proposed regulations in late October. Our summary of the QOZ regime is here, but the basic mechanics are simple: when taxpayers sell appreciated property (e.g., stocks or real estate) they can “roll” the gain into a new investment, with tax benefits for both the original “rolled” gain (deferral and up to 15 percent gain elimination) and the new investment (no tax on future gain).
In our summary, we highlighted the ability to secure QOZ benefits in urban areas, some of which are already attracting investments. QOZ benefits also are available for cannabis-business investments. There are many QOZs in rural areas that are perfect for grow and processing operations; many urban and suburban QOZs may be good locations for retail outlets and dispensaries.
There are limitations on the types of business that can qualify for QOZ benefits, so no liquor stores, golf courses or sun tan parlors. But Congress incorporated its “bad business” list from a Code section that has not been changed since 1986. Accordingly, the “bad business” list does not include cannabis-related activities. (Please don’t ask us to explain why the cannabis industry is punished under one provision of the Tax Code but allowed to take advantage of another provision of the Tax Code; the best we can say is “it’s Congress.”)
So check the map before buying or building. You may find that some locations are more desirable than others, either because it will be easier to raise money from others, save taxes for yourselves, or simply turn out to be a neighborhood in which gentrification occurs more rapidly than normal.